The cornea, which is a transparent and non-vascular structure in the front of the eyes in humans, protects the eye from external factors. It consists of a highly developed neural network. It is also a texture that focuses light. For this reason, deterioration of the transparency in the cornea layer also decreases the quality of vision.
Cornea protects the eye against harmful factors in the body to a great extent. It is also known that the cornea is protective against ultraviolet rays.
Why does corneal transparency deteriorate?
There are a number of factors that are effective in the deterioration of corneal translucency:
Accidents and physical traumas are among the most important factors that disrupt corneal transparency,
It is a factor in the deterioration of the corneal layer in some genetic origin factors,
Infections also play a role in the loss of the transparency of the cornea layer. In addition, the pterygium, where the pink tissue of the eye expands over the cornea, may affect vision in some cases.
What is a cornea transplant? How is a cornea transplant done?
Corneal transplant is an organ transplant. It is considered one of the most successful organ transplants among today’s technological developments. Cornea transplant is also known as eye transplant. It is the healing of traumas that occur in the transparent layer of the eye for various reasons by transferring the healthy corneal tissue of the deceased person to the recipient.
Approximately 6 to 9 mm from the donor’s cornea in a standard corneal transplant. a circular cross section in diameter is taken. The equal piece taken from the cornea of the recipient is removed and the new cornea is stitched with special threads in its place. The donor cornea is sutured to the recipient under a microscope and under general anesthesia. In cases where the patient is of advanced age, local anesthesia can also be preferred. Today’s advanced technologies have made possible the Intralase-Kerotoplasty procedure, which is a corneal transplant with laser. Cornea transplantation with laser almost zeroes the risk of organ rejection.
Cornea surgery is an operation that takes 15-20 minutes under general anesthesia. Since the operation may last together with cataract treatment in some special cases, it may take 1 or 2 hours. Cornea surgery is an application that should be done meticulously in expert hands. It is an intervention that should be done under the supervision of specialist doctors authorized by the Ministry of Health, under hospital conditions, and in a hygienic environment.
Certain features of the cornea to be used in corneal transplantation are essential for the successful operation:
The cornea donor should not have had an eye disease or any eye disease.
The cornea to be taken from the deceased must be healthy.
The deceased should not have microbial or viral diseases.
The deceased person who is a cornea donor should not be in a coma for a long time and the person should not have diseases such as cancer.
Conditions where corneal transplantation is required
Cornea transplantation is one of the most successful organ transplants in today’s world. The question of in which cases cornea transplantation is performed is a subject that is frequently investigated and wondered. The reasons that will require corneal transplantation and diseases that can be performed cornea transplantation are as follows:
Impairment of transparency due to injury or inflammation in the cornea,
The formation of corneal edema, which is characterized by water retention and swelling of the cornea,
Distortion of the shape of the cornea and deformation of the cornea as in keratoconus disease,
Conditions where corneal transparency is lost after cataract surgery,